Types of Knee Implants and Materials Used – Knee Replacement Surgery

One of the main reasons for knee replacement surgery becoming one of the most successful surgeries is the continuous development of knee implants with different materials that improve the longevity of the knee implant.

What makes an ideal knee implant?

An ideal knee implant must last for more than 15-20 years, should allow for regular activities and knee motion. It must perfectly fit the requirement of the patient that a knee replacement surgeon is aiming for and also must be congruent with the patients’ allergic conditions. As result, there are a variety of implants that are available in the market which are made up of different materials.

If you are looking for more information on implants used in knee replacement surgery then this blog is for you. Here we discuss four types of knee implants commonly used by knee replacement surgeons in Mumbai like Dr Niraj Vora. So read on:

Types of knee implants used in a knee replacement surgery:

A whole knee joint implant is primarily made up of 3 components. A femoral component that is attached to the resurfaced thigh bone, a tibial component that is affixed to the prepared shin bone, a plastic spacer that is placed between them and a patellofemoral component that replaces the natural knee cap.

All types of whole knee implants can be broadly classified into four types based on the materials used for the implants. They are as follows:

Metal-on-plastic:  Most common type of knee implant that is widely used in knee replacement surgeries is the metal-on-plastic knee implant. It has the longest successful track record as the most trusted knee implant and also happens to be economical.

The femoral component that is made up of metal rides on the plastic spacer fixed to the tibial component of the shin bone. Nickel, zirconium, titanium, cobalt-chromium are common types of metals used in this implant.

Ceramic-on-ceramic: As the name suggests both the femoral and tibial components are made up of ceramic material which makes this implant hard to react with the insides of the body. But as the ceramic material is not as hard as plastic or metal they carry the risk of breaking under high energy direct events (rare). They are also prone to making a squeaking sound in most cases.

Ceramic-on-plastic: The metal used in common metal-on-plastic is replaced with ceramic to make ceramic-on-plastic knee implant. This implant is generally used by a knee replacement surgeon if the patient is found to be sensitive to the use of the metal in the metal-on-plastic implants. Just like metal-on-plastic, the plastic used for the spacer may cause an immune reaction in certain patients.

Metal-on-metal implants: Metal-on-metal implants last longer than all other implants due to their robust construction. So, they are naturally used for younger patients. However, they pose the risk of metal traces leaking into the bloodstream to cause possible internal damage and hence they are not that highly preferred by knee replacement surgeons

A knee implant is carefully chosen by a knee replacement surgeon based on the surgery and medical history of patient. If you are living in Mumbai and are looking for more information on knee replacement surgery or knee implants used during the surgery, you can directly contact renowned joint replacement specialist and knee replacement surgeon Dr Niraj Vora You can mail him here: nlv@drnirajvora.com